目的 为了控制餐饮食品食源性疾病的发生,对餐饮食品原料中沙门菌进行了定量风险评估.方法 采用国家食源性疾病监测网2004年获得的常见9类共10 896份食品中沙门菌污染数据,参考国际食品法典委员和美国农业部建立的即食肉制品中沙门菌致病的剂量-反应关系模型,根据我国居民营养调查数据获得的被评估食品的每日摄入量,对食品污染沙门菌后,人群发生疾病的致病概率进行了评估和预测.结果 评估结果表明,夏秋季节熟肉制品导致沙门菌中毒的致病概率约为0.20,远远高于生肉制品;尽管禽肉的污染水平高于畜肉,但是由于消费量和阳性率的影响,其致病概率为9.11×10-6,低于畜肉(3.14×10-5),均非常低.结论 沙门菌污染食品导致的食源性疾病的发生概率最终取决于食品的膳食消费量和入口前致病菌的繁殖水平,发病率与季节、经济发展水平有明显的相关关系.
Objective To study the relationship between foodborne diseases (FBD) and contamination of Salmonella spp. in catering foods, quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) of Salmonella spp. was used to evaluate the food material or the ready to eat food. Methods The contamination data of Salmonella spp. in 10 896 food samples of 9 categories of food which were collected by National Food Contamination and Food Borne Disease Surveillance Net, combining with diet consumption data from National Food Nutrition Survey in 2002, were analyzed by the microbiological risk assessment model developed by WHO/FAO or FDA/FSIS of US to predict probability of FBD. Results The results of MRA showed that the probability of salmonellosis by consuming ready to eat meat in summer and autumn was 0. 20, much higher than the other foods. Although the contamination level in raw poultry was higher than meat, the probability of salmonellosis by raw poultry (9. 11 × 10 -6 ) was lower than meat (3. 14 × 10 -5 )because of the low consumption volume. Conclusion Probability of FBD was significantly correlated with the volume of food consumption, the status of economy and bacteria contamination level. The level of FBD in summer season was higher than in winter and spring because of ambient temperature.